SoS category

How can we classify SoS?

  • Maier defined three types of SoS in 1998.     -“Architecting principles for System of Systems”
    1. Virtual SoS
    2. Collaborative SoS
    3. Directed SoS
  • In Dahmanns & Baldwins book “Understanding the current state of US defense system of systems and the implications for systems engineering(2008)”, they additionally defines 1 category. So, four types of SoS are
    1. Virtual SoS
      • The SoS is without either managerial control or a common purpose. This makes the behavior and the fulfilled goals highly emergent, but also entails that the exact means and structures producing the system functionality are difficult to discern and distinguish.
    2. Collaborative SoS
      • The SoS recognizes a common purpose and goal, while the constituent systems retain independent control and objectives. Evolution of the common purpose is based on collaboration between the SoS and the constituent systems.
    3. Acknowledged SoS (between Collaborative SoS and directed SoS)
      • The constituent systems are not compelled to follow a central management, but voluntarily participate in a collaboration to fulfil the goal.
    4. Directed SoS
      • The SoS is built to fulfil specific purposes. Constituent systems have the ability to operate independently, but are managed to satisfy a concrete purpose.